Anhydrous Ethanol

Anhydrous Ethanol

We produce E100 Ethanol (also referred to as "Pure Ethanol," "Ethyl-Alcohol," "Neat Ethanol" or "Anhydrous Ethanol") through our company’s "turnkey" ethanol plant project development services. Our turnkey services include one or more of the following; ethanol plant feasibility studies/economic analysis, project design, engineering, development and financing/investment, feedstock supply, and e100 ethanol marketing services. Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and increased return on investment.

We provide Anaerobic Digester, Anaerobic Lagoon, Biogas Recovery, BioMethane, Biomass Gasification, and Landfill Gas To Energy, project development services. Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and increased return on investment.

Cogeneration Technologies, located in Houston, Texas, provides the following power and energy project development services:

  • Project Engineering Feasibility & Economic Analysis Studies
  • Engineering, Procurement and Construction
  • Environmental Engineering & Permitting
  • Project Funding & Financing Options; including Equity Investment, Debt Financing, Lease and Municipal Lease
  • Shared/Guaranteed Savings Program with No Capital Investment from Qualified Clients
  • Project Commissioning
  • 3rd Party Ownership and Project Development
  • Long-term Service Agreements
  • Operations & Maintenance
  • Green Tag (Renewable Energy Credit, Carbon Dioxide Credits, Emission Reduction Credits) Brokerage Services; Application and Permitting

We are Renewable Energy Technologies specialists and develop clean power and energy projects that will generate a "Renewable Energy Credit," Carbon Dioxide Credits and Emission Reduction Credits. Some of our products and services solutions and technologies include; Absorption Chillers, Adsorption Chillers, Automated Demand Response, Biodiesel Refineries, Biofuel Refineries, Biomass Gasification, BioMethane, Canola Biodiesel, Coconut Biodiesel, Cogeneration, Concentrating Solar Power, Demand Response Programs, Demand Side Management, Energy Conservation Measures, Energy Master Planning, Engine Driven Chillers, Solar CHP, Solar Cogeneration, Rapeseed Biodiesel, Solar Electric Heat Pumps, Solar Electric Power Systems, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Trigeneration, Soy Biodiesel, and Trigeneration.


Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and increased return on investment.

E100 Ethanol and the Renewable Fuels Standard

On August 8, 2005, President Bush signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (H.R. 6) into law. The comprehensive energy legislation includes a nationwide Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) that will double the use of ethanol and biodiesel by 2012.

Under the Renewable Fuels Standard, a small percentage of our nation’s fuel supply will be provided by renewable, domestic fuels including ethanol and biodiesel, providing a positive roadmap for reduced consumer fuel prices, increased energy security, and growth in rural America. The Renewable Fuels Standard is the result of several years of negotiations between the ethanol industry, oil industry, Federal government, state interests, environmentalists, agriculture and consumers over the best way to encourage a greater contribution from the renewable fuel industry to our nation’s energy needs.

The increased use of renewable fuels will expand U.S. fuel supplies while easing an overburdened refining industry. While no new oil refineries have been built in the U.S. since 1976, nearly 100 ethanol production facilities have been built during this time, adding critical volume to the gasoline market. As E100 Ethanol and B100 Biodiesel are blended with gasoline and diesel after the refining process, they directly increase domestic fuel capacity.

Year Renewable Fuels (billions of gallons)
2006 4.0
2007 4.7
2008 5.4
2009 6.1
2010 6.8
2011 7.4
2012 7.5

The Renewable Fuels Standard provisions are as follows:

  • Establishes a Renewable Fuels Standard that starts at 4 billion gallons in 2006 and increases to 7.5 billion gallons in 2012.
  • Provides for 2.78% by volume renewable fuel use in 2006 if federal regulations have not yet been promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
  • Provides that beginning in 2013, a minimum of 250 million gallons a year of cellulosic derived ethanol be included in the Renewable Fuels Standard.
  • Provides refiners flexibility by creating a credit trading program that allows refiners to use renewable fuels where and when it is most efficient and cost-effective for them to do so. The credit trading program will result in lower costs to refiners and thus, consumers. Renewable Fuels Standard credits have a lifespan of 12 months. Every gallon of cellulose-derived ethanol is equal to 2.5 gallons of renewable fuel.
  • The law exempts small refineries (defined as facilities where the average daily crude oil throughput does not exceed 75,000 barrels per day) from the Renewable Fuels Standard program until January 1, 2011. Small refineries are able to opt in to the program and generate credits as do other refineries.
  • Requires annual studies on seasonal variations in renewable fuel use. Requires regulations to ensure that at least 25% of the annual renewable fuel obligation be met in each season should seasonal variations exist. California is exempted, but refiners in the state must still use the requisite amount of renewable fuels in any given year.
  • Protects consumers with a waiver provision in the event the economy or environment would be severely harmed because of the Renewable Fuels Standard.
  • The reformulated gasoline (RFG) 2.0 wt. % oxygenate standard under the Clean Air Act is eliminated 270 days after enactment.
  • Enhances the air quality performance standards established in the RFG program.
  • Creates grant and loan guarantee programs for cellulose ethanol.
  • Creates grant and loan programs for ethanol production from sugar.


The US ethanol industry is the fastest growing energy industry in the world. Ethanol is blended in 30% of our nation’s gasoline. An annual record of 3.4 billion gallons of ethanol was produced in 2004.

As of September 8, 2004, the US had 81 plants in operation and with a capacity of 3.4 billion gallons per year. 16 additional plants are currently under construction. The plants under construction will add over 800 million gallons of annual production capacity.

Year Ethanol Produced Grain Used
1997 1.3 billion gallons Grain Used
1998 1.4 billion gallons Grain Used
1999 1.47 billion gallons Grain Used
2000 1.63 billion gallons Grain Used
2001 1.77 billion gallons Grain Used
2002 2.13 billion gallons Grain Used
2003 2.81 billion gallons Grain Used
2004 3.4 billion gallons Grain Used

From the 2004 Renewable Fuels Association’s 2004 Ethanol Industry Outlook

Among the accomplishments of the U.S. fuel ethanol industry:

  • Annual record of 3.41 billion gallons produced in 2004;
  • U.S. fuel ethanol use reached a record 3.57 billion gallons in 2004 (estimated);
  • Ethanol use reduces U.S. gasoline prices by nearly 30 cents per gallon;
  • Currently, 81 ethanol plants can produce over 3.6 billion gallons annually;
  • With 16 plants under construction, annual production capacity will soon expand to 4.4 billion gallons;
  • Farmer-owned ethanol plants account for 40% of total industry capacity;
  • Ethanol use consumed more than 1.26 billion bushels of corn in 2004;
  • Ethanol production raised corn prices and, thereby, reduced federal farm program cost by $3.2 billion dollars in 2004;
  • Ethanol production supports over 147,000 U.S. jobs;
  • Ethanol produces 167% of the fossil energy that is used to grow, harvest, transport and process the grain into ethanol;
  • Ethanol use reduced over 7 million tons of CO2-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions in 2004;
  • Every 1 Btu of petroleum fuel used to produce ethanol generates 13.2 Btus of ethanol.

What is Ethanol?

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, EtOH) is a clear, colorless liquid. In dilute aqueous solution, it has a somewhat sweet flavor, but in more concentrated solutions it has a burning taste. Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is made up of a group of chemical compounds whose molecules contain a hydroxyl group, -OH, bonded to a carbon atom. Ethanol made from cellulosic biomass materials instead of traditional feedstocks (starch crops) is called bioethanol.

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 mandated the sale of oxygenated fuels in areas with unhealthy levels of carbon monoxide. Since that time, there has been strong demand for ethanol as an oxygenate blended with gasoline. In the United States each year, approximately 2 billion gallons are added to gasoline to increase octane and improve the emissions quality of gasoline.

Blends of at least 85% ethanol are considered alternative fuels under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, is used in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) that are currently offered by most major auto manufacturers. FFVs can run on gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two and qualify as alternative fuel vehicles under EPAct regulations. In some areas, ethanol is blended with gasoline to form an E10 blend (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline).

Chemical properties: Ethanol is ethane with a hydrogen molecule replaced by a hydroxyl radical.

How Ethanol is made at an Ethanol Plant