Global Warming Potential
Global Warming Potential
Engineering, Products, Services and Information and Developing Certified Emission Reduction Credits under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism.
We provide Global Warming Potential design, engineering and turnkey project development solutions. We also offer energy-saving technologies that include; Absorption Chillers, Adsorption Chillers, Automated Demand Response, Cogeneration, Demand Response Programs, Demand Side Management, Energy Master Planning, Engine Driven Chillers, Trigeneration and Energy Conservation Measures.
Our company provides turn-key project solutions that include all or part of the following:
- Engineering and Economic Feasibility Studies
- Project Design, Engineering & Permitting
- Project Construction
- Project Funding & Financing Options
- Shared/Guaranteed Savings program with no capital requirements
- Project Commissioning
- Operations & Maintenance
What is "Global Warming Potential?
Global Warming Potential (GWP) is the index used to translate the level of emissions of various gases into a common measure in order to compare the relative radioactive forcing of different gases without directly calculating the changes in atmospheric concentrations.
GWPs are calculated as the ratio of the radioactive forcing that would result from the emissions of one kilogram of a greenhouse gas to that from emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a period of time (usually 100 years). Gases involved in complex atmospheric chemical processes have not been assigned GWPs due to complications that arise.
Greenhouse gases are expressed in terms of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has presented these GWPs.
and regularly updates them in new assessments. The instantaneous radioactive forcing that results from the addition of 1 kilogram of a gas to the atmosphere, relative to that of 1 kilogram of carbon dioxide.
Over a time horizon of 100 years, methane has a GWP of 24.5, nitrous oxide has a GWP of 320, and CFC-11 has a GWP of 4,000.
What Are Greenhouse Gas Emissions?
Some greenhouse gas emissions occur naturally in the atmosphere, while others result from human activities. Naturally occurring greenhouse gas emissions include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, Biomethane, nitrous oxides, and ozone. Certain human activities, however, add to the levels of most of these naturally occurring gases:
Carbon dioxide emissions are released to the atmosphere when solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), and wood and wood products are burned.
Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Biomethane emissions also result from the decomposition of organic wastes in municipal solid waste landfills, and the raising of livestock.
Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels.
Very powerful greenhouse gases that are not naturally occurring include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which are generated in a variety of industrial processes.
|Carbon dioxide (CO2)||50-200||1|
|Nitrous oxide (N2O)||120||310|
- a100 year time horizon
- bThe methane GWP includes the direct effects and those indirect effects due to the production of tropospheric ozone and stratospheric water vapor. The indirect effect due to the production of CO2 is not included.
What are Nitrogen Oxides?
Nitrogen Oxides, or NOx, is the generic term for a group of highly reactive gases, all of which contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts. Many of the nitrogen oxides are colorless and odorless. However, one common pollutant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) along with particles in the air can often be seen as a reddish-brown layer over many urban areas.
Nitrogen Oxides form when fuel is burned at high temperatures, as in a combustion process. The primary sources of NOx are motor vehicles, electric utilities, and other industrial, commercial, and residential sources that burn fuels.
<img alt="Motor Vehicles, 49%; Utilities, 27%; Industrial/Commercial/Residential, 19%; All Other Sources, 5%" src="piehttp://cogeneration.net/2.gif" align="bottom" border="0" width="345" height="379">
Reasons for Concern
<img alt="Plant Image" src="http://cogeneration.net/chfphoto.gif" align="right" border="0" width="173" height="181">
Nitrogen Oxides or simply "NOx"
- Is one of the main ingredients involved in the formation of ground-level ozone, which can trigger serious respiratory problems?
- Reacts to form nitrate particles, acid aerosols, as well as NO2, which also cause respiratory problems.
- Contributes to formation of acid rain.
- Contributes to nutrient overload that deteriorates water quality.
- Contributes to atmospheric particles, which cause visibility impairment most noticeable in national parks.
- Reacts to form toxic chemicals.
- Contributes to global warming.
Nitrogen Oxides and the pollutants formed from Nitrogen Oxides can be transported over long distances, following the pattern of prevailing winds in the U.S. This means that problems associated with Nitrogen Oxides are not confined to areas where Nitrogen Oxides are emitted. Therefore, controlling Nitrogen Oxides is often most effective if done from a regional perspective, rather than focusing on sources in one local area.
Nitrogen Oxides emissions are increasing.
Since 1970, EPA has tracked emissions of the six principal air pollutants – carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. Emissions of all of these pollutants have decreased significantly except for Nitrogen Oxides which has increased approximately 10 percent over this period.
How can Nitrogen Oxides be removed from the Environment?
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a proven and effective method to reduce nitrogen oxides which is an air pollutant associated with the power generation process. Nitrogen oxides are a contributor to ground level ozone.
How does Selective Catalytic Reduction work?
SCR Systems work similar to a catalytic converter used to reduce automobile emissions. Prior to exhaust gases going up the smokestack, they will pass through the SCR System where anhydrous ammonia reacts with nitrogen oxide and converts it to nitrogen and water.